The Importance of Calibrating Your Welding Machine

To ensure that your welding machine is operating at the appropriate levels it is important to have it calibrated and certified. Calibrating your welding machine involves going through the meters on your welding machine and adjusting them until they meet the specifications set forth by the manufacturer. Once you have had your welding machine calibrated you can then have it certified. Having your machine certified involves creating a paper trail to show that it has been calibrated properly and your machine can be traced back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Providing your welding machine with a certified calibration will guarantee that the welding procedures performed by your machine are accurate. Along with following proper maintenance guidelines, having your machine professionally calibrated is one of the best ways to ensure that your welding machine runs at its best capabilities. The demands of the welding world today require the use of properly calibrated welding equipment in order to perform the high quality welds that many of your customers are looking for.

Before beginning work on a new welding process, you should have your machine calibrated. Having it calibrated prior to beginning a new procedure will allow the procedure to be written in a controlled environment. It also helps to create a standard to which all work performed on your machine should be held to. Welding experts recommend that your welding machine be calibrated annually and any calibration procedures that are performed on your welding machine should be written into ISO specifications.

If you are performing welding tasks on a welding machine that is out of calibration, they can create an environment where welder errors are possible. This is why it is important to annually calibrate your welding equipment; it can help you avoid making costly mistakes that could have been avoided. Welders depend on their equipment to perform well and accurately, this is what makes their jobs so demanding. Being off a fraction of an inch can throw the whole project off and the welder will have to perform corrections that wouldn’t be necessary if their welding machine had been properly calibrated. A welder’s job is stressful enough; calibration is just another tool that they can use to make the welding process go much smoother and problem free.

This article comes from bakersgas edit released

How Led Lighting Are Different


LED lighting is very different from other lighting sources such as incandescent bulbs and CFLs. Key differences include the following:

  • Light Source: LED lighting are the size of a fleck of pepper, and a mix of red, green, and blue LED lighting is typically used to make white light.
  • Direction: LED lighting emit light in a specific direction, reducing the need for reflectors and diffusers that can trap light. This feature makes LED lighting more efficient for many uses such as recessed downlights and task lighting. With other types of lighting, the light must be reflected to the desired direction and more than half of the light may never leave the fixture.
  • Heat: LED lighting emit very little heat. In comparison, incandescent bulbs release 90% of their energy as heat and CFLs release about 80% of their energy as heat.

This article comes from energy edit released

The Basics of Frequency Inverter Drives

When Tesla first introduced the 3-phase alternating current (AC) induction motor in 1888, he knew that his invention was more efficient and reliable than Edison’s direct current (DC) motor. However, AC motor speed control requires either varying the magnetic flux or changing the number of poles on the motor. Even decades after the induction motor gained widespread use, changing the frequency inverter for speed control remained an extremely difficult task — and the physical construction of the motor prevented manufacturers from creating motors with more than two speeds.

As a result, DC motors were necessary where accurate speed control and significant power output were required. In contrast to AC motor speed control requirements, DC motor speed control was achieved by inserting a rheostat into the low-power DC field circuit, which was feasible with available technology. These simple motor controls varied the speed and torque, and were the most economical way to do so for a number of decades.

By the 1980s, AC motor drive technology became reliable and inexpensive enough to compete with traditional DC motor control. These frequency inverter drives (VFDs) accurately control the speed of standard AC induction or synchronous motors. With VFDs, speed control with full torque is achieved from 0 rpm through the maximum rated speed and, if required, above the rated speed at reduced torque. VFDs manipulate the frequency of their output by rectifying an incoming AC current into DC, and then using voltage pulse-width modulation to recreate an AC current and voltage output waveform. However, this frequency inverter conversion process causes 2% to 3% loss as heat in the VFD — caloric energy that must be dissipated. The process also yields overvoltage spikes and harmonic current distortions.

frequency inverter types

There are three common types of VFDs. Current source inversion (CSI) has been successfully used in signal processing and industrial power applications. CSI VFDs are the only type that has regenerative power capability. In other words, they can absorb power flow back from the motor into the power supply. CSI VFDs give a very clean current waveform but require large, expensive inductors in their construction and cause cogging (pulsating movement during rotation) below 6 Hz.

Voltage source inversion (VSI) drives have poor power factor, can cause motor cogging below 6 Hz, and are non-regenerative. Consequently, CSI and VSI drives have not been widely used.

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) VFDs are most commonly used in industry because of excellent input power factor due to fixed DC bus voltage, no motor cogging, higher efficiencies, and lower cost. A PWM VFD uses a series of voltage pulses of different lengths to simulate a sinusoidal wave (Fig. 1 on page 8). Ideally, the pulses are timed so that the time average integral of the drive yields a perfect sinusoid. The current method of choice to produce this waveform runs a triangle wave and sine wave through a comparator, and outputs a voltage pulse whenever the sine wave’s value is greater than the triangle wave. The current electric component of choice to generate the voltage pulse is the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), although silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) can work as well. In the near future, injection-enhanced gate transistors (IEGTs) will be used to perform this task. Much more long term, memristors will probably become the component of choice for this task.

Memristors are the fourth passive circuit element, linking electric charge and magnetic flux. Memristors have been hypothesized to exist for more than 30 years, but were not fabricated until April 2008 by Hewlett Packard Labs. Hewlett Packard hopes to use these devices as a passive transistor, reducing their heat generation compared to other types of memory. Regardless of the component used to form the sine wave, the switching action causes problems.

This article comes from ecmweb edit released

PDL Switch & Socket Range

PDL600 Series – Switches & Sockets etc available in either Black or White. If Black & White isn’t quite you – You can change the cover plate to Stainless Steel, Brushed Bronze etc.

PDL Iconic Range – Switches & Sockets etc available in Vivid White. If Vivid white isn’t for you can change the skins (Cover Plates) and or Dolly Rockers (Module Covers) to Anthracite, Cool Grey or Warm Grey. Otherwise you can make up your own switches & sockets with the components you want.

PDL800 Series – Modena Switches & Sockets etc available in either Black or White. If Black & White isn’t quite you – You can change the cover plate to Stainless Steel, Brushed Bronze etc.

Or Strato which is available in either Black or White.

Both Ranges have Grid and Cover Plates available – So you can make up your own switch with the components you want.

This article comes from electricaldirectltd edit released

The Future of Light Is the LED


This is the last Lightfair before new regulations governing lightbulb efficiency begin to take effect in the US in January, and there’s a real sense of history and urgency on the show floor. Ready or not, the way we light our homes and offices is about to change, and the technology that will lead the way is somewhere in this hall.

If all goes according to plan, the provisions of 2007’s Energy Independence and Security Act will effectively ban 100-watt incandescents starting in 2012. Seventy-five-watt bulbs will depart in 2013, followed by 60- and 40-watt lamps a year later. So the race to find a suitable replacement technology is coming down to the wire. The industry is banking on LED Lighting as the way forward, and it’s virtually the only bulb technology on display: There is barely a single incandescent or sickly compact fluorescent to be seen. Just 200,000 square feet of companies racing to fill their share of the world’s billions of standard sockets—and betting on LED Lighting as the way to do it.

There’s an excellent reason LED Lighting have taken on the aura of inevitability: LED Lighting are semiconductors, and like all solid-state technology, they are getting better and cheaper on a predictable curve. In 1999, a researcher named Roland Haitz, then heading up semiconductor R&D at Hewlett-Packard, coauthored a paper that became the lighting industry’s manifesto. By charting the historical prices of LED Lighting and projecting forward, Haitz estimated that the amount of light they produced would increase by a factor of 20 per decade, while the cost would correspondingly drop by a factor of 10.

Haitz’s law has proven remarkably accurate. But the lighting industry still has major hurdles to clear before LED Lighting gain acceptance by consumers. Beyond the very real technical issues—cooling, costs, light color—there’s the public’s lingering distaste for compact fluorescent lamps, which failed miserably in their projected role as bulb of the future. That sentiment has fed into a Tea Party-fueled backlash against the new regulations, and there have been attempts in Congress to roll them back entirely.

This article comes from wired edit released

Buying Your First Welding Machine

Regardless of your interests, needs, or motivation, you’re a do-it-yourselfer interested in buying your first welding machine. Whether you already have previous welding experience, or, you’re a welding novice, you are likely here because you need some help getting started.

Getting started

Unfortunately, there is no single welding process suitable for all applications, so let’s begin with an overview of the basic processes and highlight the capabilities and advantages of each. This will help us better match a process to your specific needs.

If you have previous welding experience, feel free to skip ahead. If you are somewhat of a novice, this section will provide you with a better understanding of the types of welding machines available, how each performs and degree of welding skill required to operate each. In addition, we’ll offer examples of specific applications best suited to each process.

Matching your needs and welding skills with a specific process is critical before moving on to discuss specific welding machine model options.

Welding Processes

The most common welding processes include Stick, MIG/Flux-cored and TIG. Each process has its own unique set of benefits and limitations, works well in some welding applications, and not well in others. There’s no “one size fits all” — and as you will soon discover — for good reason.

Stick Welding — If you learned to weld years ago, you likely learned using an arc welding machine. Stick welding has, for many years, been the most popular method for most home-shop welding needs. Stick welding uses an electric current flowing from a gap between the metal and the welding stick, also known as an arc-welding electrode. Stick welding is an effective method for welding most alloys or joints and can be used both indoors and outdoors, or in drafty areas. It is also the most economical welding method and largely popular because of its ability to create an effective bond on rusty or dirty metals.

Arc welding is limited, however, to metals no thinner than 18-gauge, requires frequent rod changing, emits significant spatter; and welds must be cleaned upon completion. Stick welding is also more difficult to learn and use, particularly the ability to strike and maintain an arc. Arc welding machines are available in either AC or DC or AC/DC; with AC being the most economical. It is used for welding thicker metals of 1/16-inch or greater. They are a good choice for farmers, hobbyists and home maintenance chores.

MIG Welding / Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) — MIG welding machines use a wire welding electrode on a spool that is fed automatically at a constant pre-selected speed. The arc, created by an electrical current between the base metal and the wire, melts the wire and joins it together with the base, producing a high-strength weld with great appearance and little need for cleaning. MIG welding is clean, easy and can be used on either thin or thicker plate metals.

A slight variation of MIG welding — Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) — is similar in that it is also a wire-feed process but differs in that it does not require a shielding gas. This gas-free welding application uses Flux-Cored wire to shield the arc, and is a simple, efficient and effective welding approach, especially when welding outdoors, in windy conditions or on dirty materials. The process is widely used in construction because of its high welding speed and portability.

Both MIG and Flux-Cored are very easy to learn and can create extremely clean welds on steel, aluminum and stainless. Both types have the capability to weld materials as thin as 26-gauge.

TIG Welding / Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) — TIG welding is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually argon), and a filler metal, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy that is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as plasma.

TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of alloy steel, stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control over the weld than other welding processes, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. TIG welding is comparatively more complex and difficult to master than other welding types, and is significantly slower.

This article comes from millerwelds edit released

How to Choose Frequency Inverter and High-frequency Inverter

When users purchasing high-power inverter, they often facing the choice between frequency inverter and high-frequency inverter. For the purposes of inverter manufacturers, of course, they considered to be their own good. Providing frequency inverter manufacturers say high-frequency inverter stability and reliability; high frequency inverter manufacturers say high-frequency inverter to save space, relatively low cost. In fact, the frequency and high-frequency inverter in the end is better, it is difficult to generalize, and we can say advantages and disadvantages. Users should fully understand the basis of these two inverter models, based on an objective look at their applications and needs, to choose the products they need.

Principle analysis of frequency inverters and high-frequency inverter

Frequency inverter and high-frequency inverter is based on the power inverter frequency circuit design to distinguish. Frequency inverter based on traditional principles of analog circuit design, by a thyristor (SCR) rectifier, IGBT inverter, bypass and frequency step-up isolation transformer. Its operating frequency rectifiers and transformers are frequency 50Hz, as the name suggests is called frequency inverter. High frequency inverter usually consists of high frequency IGBT rectifier, battery converter, inverter and bypass.

IGBT can be applied to the control gate driver to control the turn on and off, IGBT rectifier switching frequency is usually in the tens of kHz to several kHz or even up to hundreds of kHz, much higher than the frequency inverter, so called for the high-frequency inverter.

In the frequency inverter circuit, three-phase AC input main road after commutation inductance, received three SCR rectifier bridge arm composed converted into DC voltage by controlling the rectifier bridge SCR conduction angle to adjust the output DC voltage value. Because SCR semi-controlled device, the control system can control the opening point, once the SCR is turned on, even if the gate drive to undo, you cannot turn off, after which the current is zero only wait until the off naturally, so the turn-on and turn-off are based on a frequency cycle, there is no high frequency on and off control. Because SCR rectifier belong buck rectifier, so the DC bus voltage by the inverter output AC input AC voltage ratio down, to make the output voltage can be obtained with a constant voltage of 220V, the boost must be increased isolation transformer in the inverter output.

In contrast, the high-frequency inverter rectifying part boost rectifier, DC bus peak output voltage than the input line voltage is high, generally typical value of about 800V, if the battery is directly attached to the bus, the required standard battery section 67 requires the number of sections, to the practical application of such great restrictions. It is generally high-frequency inverter will configure a separate battery voltage converter, the mains is normal when the battery converter bus voltage down to 800V battery voltage; mains failure or overrun, the battery pack voltage converter to rise high bus voltage to 800V. Since high frequency inverter bus voltage of about 800V, so the inverter output phase voltages can be directly reaches 220V, the inverter is no longer required after the step-up transformer. Therefore, with or without an isolation transformer is the main difference frequency and high-frequency inverter on the inverter structure.

This article comes from Power Inverter edit released

Switch socket Market 2015-2018 Industry Analysis

2015 Global Switch socket Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the world’s major regional market conditions of the Switch socket industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).

The study GlobalSwitch socket Industry 2015 is a detailed report scrutinizing statistical data related to theGlobalSwitch socket industry. Historical data available in the report elaborates on the development of the Switch socket market on aGlobaland national level. The report compares this data with the current state of the market and thus elaborates upon the trends that have brought the market shifts.

The market forces determining the shaping of the Switch socket market have been evaluated in detail. In addition to this, the regulatory scenario of the market has been covered in the report from both theGlobaland local perspective. Market predictions along with the statistical nuances presented in the report render an insightful view of the Switch socket market.

The demand and supply side of the market has been extensively covered in the report. The challenges the players in the Switch socket market face in terms of demand and supply have been listed in the report. Recommendations to overcome these challenges and optimize supply and demand opportunities have also been covered in this report.

Growth prospects of the overall Switch socket industry have been presented in the report. However, to give an in-depth view to the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Switch socket market has been covered in this study. The key geographical regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.

The competitive framework of the Switch socket market in terms of theGlobalSwitch socket industry has been evaluated in the report. The top companies and their overall share and share with respect to the Globalmarket have been included in the report. Furthermore, the factors on which the companies compete in the market have been evaluated in the report.

This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc.Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, equipment, downstream client survey, marketing channels, industry development trend and proposals. In the end, the report includes Switch socket new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, investment return analysis, and development trend analysis. In conclusion, it is a deep research report onGlobalSwitch socket industry.

This article comes from linkedin edit released

Best LED Lighting for Home Garage Use

Typically, home garage LED Lighting will be best served by using linear lighting and will already have fluorescent tube lighting installed. You can now easily replace this lighting with LED Lightingreplacement tube lights.

As a rule of thumb, it is best to use two 4ft. tubes for each car your garage can fit. A two-car garage should ideally have four 4-ft. tubes, in rows of two, to create all around illumination for an environment suitable for working on vehicles or simply spending time in the garage as we all do from time to time.

No matter what industry you’re in, the right LED Lighting is vital to the success of your business. We have a huge variety of LED Lighting products that are both durable and energy efficient to help you keep your LED Lighting costs down.

This article comes from earth-led edit released

Now Is the Time Buy a Welding Machine

We are a world leader in welding machine for onshore and offshore pipeline construction projects, providing an extensive range of equipment for a variety of project applications.

Year after year, welding machines are designed, tested, used, and continuously upgraded in every type of environment. Our customers enjoy industry-leading repair rates that are constantly improving.

Specialized Welding Equipment Services

Based on the goal of continuously helping our customers meet the ever-changing challenges of pipeline construction, we also provide an array of specialized services built around our equipment, including engineering, onsite technical support, and equipment training. Our high-precision equipment lines include single- and dual-head welding systems, external and internal welding machines, copper backup clamps, pipe facing machines, and support equipment.

We are the one company that offers three distinct pipeline welding systems, giving you solution options that precisely meet your productivity and budget goals.

This article comes from crc-evans edit released